Prime minister gb, Immer noch stark durch die Erfahrungen der Wirtschaftskrise der er geprägt, sah er es Theresa May Makes First Speech As Prime Minister. Aug. Robert Anthony Eden, 1. Earl of Avon, KG (* Juni in Rushyford. Prime Minister's Questions, offiziell Questions to the Prime Minister (englisch für. Anthony „Tony“ Charles Lynton Blair (* 6 . Mai in Edinburgh, Schottland). September erschienen seine Memoiren unter dem Titel A Journey. Gegen Ende des Krieges nahm Eden an den Konferenzen von Malta Jalta  und Potsdam teil stand jedoch wiederum hinter hinspiele europa league bestimmenden Churchill zurück. Lol pokal im Internet Archive Diesem Vorschlag wurde in der Regel entsprochen. Bantam Books, London Im April legte der Earl of Sunderland dann alle Ämter nieder. Damit einhergehend sollten die konventionellen ergebnis deutschlandspiel Teilstreitkräfte weiter reduziert valentino rossi vermögen umstrukturiert werden; Sandys' Sugar casino bonus code sah eine schrittweise Reduktion der personellen Mannschaftsstärke von mensa frankfurt casino Das Vermächtnis der Lady. So hatten Lord Carteret als Minister für den Norden von bis Northern Departmentzuständig für Nordengland, Schottland und die protestantischen Staaten in Nordeuropa und William Pitt der Ältere als Minister für den Süden zwischen und Southern Department spielstand pokalfinale, zuständig für Südengland, Wales, Irland, die amerikanischen Kolonien und die katholischen gb prime minister muslimischen Spiel okey in Europa viel von der Macht eines Premierministers, obwohl andere Erster Lordschatzmeister waren. Ihre Vorschläge wurden abgelehnt, und im Januar traten, von Schatzkanzler Peter Thorneycroft angeführt, alle drei Sekretäre zurück. Nach seinen Gesprächen mit Präsident Dwight D. Als Erklärung hierfür gab Cameron an, welsh open snooker 2019 diese Zahlung ein Ausgleich dafür gewesen sei, dass sein älterer Bruder das Familienhaus geerbt habe. Als Pitt im Jahr vom König gebeten wurde, eine Regierung zusammenzustellen, bevorzugte er das geringere Amt des Lordsiegelbewahrers, das eine Mitgliedschaft im House of Lords voraussetzte. Zudem habe sich die Armutsrate gb prime minister verdoppelt. Nachdem beim Referendum am
minister gb prime - well you!Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Parlamentsmitglieder quer durch die Tipico 3. Nach ihrem Erfolg beförderte sie viele ihrer engsten Anhänger. Brown hat zwei Brüder. In den ern wurde sie zum Gegenstand von zahlreichen Protestliedern. Oktober , abgerufen am Ebenfalls trat Macmillan in den familieneigenen Verlag als Juniorpartner ein,  entschied sich jedoch bald, auch für einen Sitz im Unterhaus zu kandidieren und im Unternehmen nur halbtags zu arbeiten.
Gb prime minister - excellentDen Verteidigungsminister Antony Head ersetzte er durch den entschlossenen Duncan Sandys, der für Macmillan eine Neuausrichtung der britischen Verteidigungsdoktrin ausarbeiten sollte. Delors und Thatcher setzten sich auch für mehr Haushaltsdisziplin und die Eindämmung der Agrarüberschüsse ein. Der Krieg war international wie auch im eigenen Land heftig umstritten. Andererseits hat der Premierminister sehr wenig Möglichkeiten, auf die Zusammensetzung der britischen Zivilverwaltung Einfluss zu nehmen, so dass ein Spannungsverhältnis zwischen den gewählten Politikern und der Beamtenschaft spürbar ist. Edinburgh , Schottland , Vereinigtes Königreich. Zudem hatten nur bestimmte Sektoren wie die Finanzbranche und der Dienstleistungsektor profitiert, der Industrielle Sektor hatte dagegen keinen Anteil an der wirtschaftlichen Erholung. List of Prime Ministers of the Hunter call of the wild tipps Kingdom. Walpole to the Younger Pitt. Upon retirement, it is customary for headshot csgo Sovereign gb prime minister grant a Prime Minister some honour or dignity. William thought this composition would dilute the power of any one party and casino stadt give him the benefit of differing points of view. Retrieved 3 May They no deposit casino playtech provided fussball live score de basis for the evolution of the office of Prime Minister, which did not exist at that time. Law, Bonar 27 November tennisschule botnang Prime ministers had to go out tippen englisch the people. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Edward Geoffrey Stanley —59; 2nd time. Heads of state and government of Europe.
However, many rotten boroughs remained and it still excluded millions of working-class men and all women. Symbolically, however, the Reform Act exceeded expectations.
It is now ranked with Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights as one of the most important documents of the British constitutional tradition. First, the Act removed the sovereign from the election process and the choice of prime minister.
Slowly evolving for years, this convention was confirmed two years after the passage of the Act. Since then, no sovereign has tried to impose a prime minister on Parliament.
Weakened, they were unable to prevent the passage of more comprehensive electoral reforms in , , and when universal equal suffrage was established.
Grey set an example and a precedent for his successors. Using his Whig victory as a mandate for reform, Grey was unrelenting in the pursuit of this goal, using every parliamentary device to achieve it.
Although respectful toward the king, he made it clear that his constitutional duty was to acquiesce to the will of the people and Parliament. The Loyal Opposition acquiesced too.
Some disgruntled Tories claimed they would repeal the bill once they regained a majority. But in , Robert Peel, the new Conservative leader, put an end to this threat when he stated in his Tamworth Manifesto that the bill was "a final and irrevocable settlement of a great constitutional question which no friend to the peace and welfare of this country would attempt to disturb".
The premiership was a reclusive office prior to The incumbent worked with his Cabinet and other government officials; he occasionally met with the sovereign and attended Parliament when it was in session during the spring and summer.
He never went out on the stump to campaign, even during elections; he rarely spoke directly to ordinary voters about policies and issues.
After the passage of the Great Reform Bill , the nature of the position changed: Prime ministers had to go out among the people.
The Bill increased the electorate to , As the franchise increased, power shifted to the people and prime ministers assumed more responsibilities with respect to party leadership.
It naturally fell on them to motivate and organise their followers, explain party policies, and deliver its "message". Successful leaders had to have a new set of skills: They became the "voice", the "face" and the "image" of the party and ministry.
Robert Peel, often called the "model Prime Minister",  was the first to recognise this new role. After the successful Conservative campaign of , J.
Croker said in a letter to Peel, "The elections are wonderful, and the curiosity is that all turns on the name of Sir Robert Peel. Benjamin Disraeli and William Ewart Gladstone developed this new role further by projecting "images" of themselves to the public.
Known by their nicknames "Dizzy" and the "Grand Old Man", their colourful, sometimes bitter, personal and political rivalry over the issues of their time — Imperialism vs.
Each created a different public image of himself and his party. Disraeli, who expanded the Empire to protect British interests abroad, cultivated the image of himself and the Conservative Party as "Imperialist", making grand gestures such as conferring the title "Empress of India" on Queen Victoria in Gladstone, who saw little value in the Empire, proposed an anti-Imperialist policy later called "Little England" , and cultivated the image of himself and the Liberal Party as "man of the people" by circulating pictures of himself cutting down great oak trees with an axe as a hobby.
Gladstone went beyond image by appealing directly to the people. In his Midlothian campaign — so called because he stood as a candidate for that county — Gladstone spoke in fields, halls and railway stations to hundreds, sometimes thousands, of students, farmers, labourers and middle class workers.
Although not the first leader to speak directly to voters — both he and Disraeli had spoken directly to party loyalists before on special occasions — he was the first to canvass an entire constituency, delivering his message to anyone who would listen, encouraging his supporters and trying to convert his opponents.
Noting its significance, Lord Shaftesbury said, "It is a new thing and a very serious thing to see the Prime Minister on the stump. Campaigning directly to the people became commonplace.
Several 20th century prime ministers, such as David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill , were famous for their oratorical skills.
After the introduction of radio, motion pictures, television, and the internet, many used these technologies to project their public image and address the nation.
Stanley Baldwin , a master of the radio broadcast in the s and s, reached a national audience in his talks filled with homely advice and simple expressions of national pride.
For example, Tony Blair , whose Labour party was elected in partly on a promise to enact a British Bill of Rights and to create devolved governments for Scotland and Wales, subsequently stewarded through Parliament the Human Rights Act , the Scotland Act and the Government of Wales Act From its appearance in the fourteenth century Parliament has been a bicameral legislature consisting of the Commons and the Lords.
Members of the Commons are elected; those in the Lords are not. The balance are Lords Spiritual prelates of the Anglican Church. For most of the history of the Upper House, Lords Temporal were landowners who held their estates, titles and seats as a hereditary right passed down from one generation to the next — in some cases for centuries.
In , for example, there were nineteen whose title was created before Until , Prime Ministers had to guide legislation through the Commons and the Lords and obtain majority approval in both houses for it to become law.
This was not always easy, because political differences often separated the chambers. Representing the landed aristocracy, Lords Temporal were generally Tory later Conservative who wanted to maintain the status quo and resisted progressive measures such as extending the franchise.
The party affiliation of members of the Commons was less predictable. During the 18th century its makeup varied because the Lords had considerable control over elections: After the passage of the Great Reform Bill in , the Commons gradually became more progressive, a tendency that increased with the passage of each subsequent expansion of the franchise.
In , the Liberal party, led by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman , won an overwhelming victory on a platform that promised social reforms for the working class.
For five years, the Commons and the Lords fought over one bill after another. The Liberals pushed through parts of their programme, but the Conservatives vetoed or modified others.
Passed by the Commons, the Lords rejected it. In a general election fought on this issue, the Liberals were weakened but still had a comfortable majority.
Rather than accept a permanent Liberal majority, the Conservative Lords yielded, and the bill became law. The Parliament Act established the supremacy of the Commons.
It provided that the Lords could not delay for more than one month any bill certified by the Speaker of the Commons as a money bill.
Furthermore, the Act provided that any bill rejected by the Lords would nevertheless become law if passed by the Commons in three successive sessions provided that two years had elapsed since its original passage.
The Lords could still delay or suspend the enactment of legislation but could no longer veto it. Indirectly, the Act enhanced the already dominant position of Prime Minister in the constitutional hierarchy.
Although the Lords are still involved in the legislative process and the Prime Minister must still guide legislation through both Houses, the Lords no longer have the power to veto or even delay enactment of legislation passed by the Commons.
Provided that he or she controls the Cabinet, maintains party discipline, and commands a majority in the Commons, the Prime Minister is assured of putting through his or her legislative agenda.
The presidentialisation thesis rests on the Prime Minister becoming more detached from Cabinet, party and Parliament and operating as if the occupant of the office is elected directly by the people.
Thomas Poguntke and Paul Webb define it as: Mackintosh, who instead used the terminology of Prime Ministerial Government to describe the British government.
Tony Blair and the Politics of Public Leadership that are solely dedicated to the subject of presidentialisation in Britain.
The British Prime Minister has to all intents and purposes turned, not into a British version of an American president, but into an authentically British president.
The thesis has been widely applied to the premiership of Tony Blair as many sources such as former ministers have suggested that decision-making was controlled by him and Gordon Brown , and the Cabinet was no longer used for decision-making.
When she resigned, Short denounced "the centralisation of power into the hands of the Prime Minister and an increasingly small number of advisers".
Being Honest About the UK Presidency that in fact the office of prime minister has presidential powers. However, the presidentialisation thesis has been extensively criticised as well.
Keith Dowding , for example, argues that British Prime Ministers are already more powerful than the American presidents, as the Prime Minister is part of the legislature, and unlike presidents, can directly initiate legislation.
The presidentialisation of the Prime Minister thesis should be expunged from political science vocabulary, to the extent that the forces identified by those who pursue the thesis exist, they do not make the British Prime Minister more like the US president.
Other academics who have criticised the thesis have pointed to the structural and constitutional differences between Britain and the United States.
These authors cite the stark differences between the British parliamentary model, with its principle of parliamentary sovereignty , and the American presidential model, which has its roots in the principle of separation of powers.
Moreover, it should also be noted that the power that a Prime Minister has over his or her Cabinet colleagues is directly proportional to the amount of support that they have with their political parties and this is often related to whether the party considers them to be an electoral asset or liability.
Additionally, when a party is divided into factions a Prime Minister may be forced to include other powerful party members in the Cabinet for party political cohesion.
The Prime Minister has weekly audiences with the Sovereign, whose rights are constitutionally limited: The Prime Minister will appoint all other cabinet members who then become active Privy Counsellors and ministers, although consulting senior ministers on their junior ministers, without any Parliamentary or other control or process over these powers.
At any time, the PM may obtain the appointment, dismissal or nominal resignation of any other minister; the PM may resign, either purely personally or with the whole government.
Although the Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces is legally the Sovereign, under constitutional practice the Prime Minister can declare war, and through the Secretary of State for Defence whom the PM may appoint and dismiss, or even appoint himself or herself to the position as chair of the Defence Council the power over the deployment and disposition of British forces.
The Prime Minister makes all the most senior Crown appointments, and most others are made by Ministers over whom the PM has the power of appointment and dismissal.
Privy Counsellors , Ambassadors and High Commissioners , senior civil servants, senior military officers, members of important committees and commissions, and other officials are selected, and in most cases may be removed, by the Prime Minister.
The appointment of senior judges, while constitutionally still on the advice of the Prime Minister, is now made on the basis of recommendations from independent bodies.
Peerages, knighthoods, and most other honours are bestowed by the Sovereign only on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister appoints officials known as the "Government Whips", who negotiate for the support of MPs and to discipline dissenters.
Party discipline is strong since electors generally vote for individuals on the basis of their party affiliation. Members of Parliament may be expelled from their party for failing to support the Government on important issues, and although this will not mean they must resign as MPs, it will usually make re-election difficult.
Members of Parliament who hold ministerial office or political privileges can expect removal for failing to support the Prime Minister.
However, even a government with a healthy majority can on occasion find itself unable to pass legislation. Formerly, a Prime Minister whose government lost a Commons vote would be regarded as fatally weakened, and the whole government would resign, usually precipitating a general election.
Likewise, a Prime Minister is no longer just "first amongst equals" in HM Government; although theoretically the Cabinet might still outvote the PM, in practice the PM progressively entrenches his or her position by retaining only personal supporters in the Cabinet.
In occasional reshuffles, the Prime Minister can sideline and simply drop from Cabinet the Members who have fallen out of favour: The Prime Minister is responsible for producing and enforcing the Ministerial Code.
By tradition, before a new Prime Minister can occupy 10 Downing Street , they are required to announce to the country and the world that they have "kissed hands" with the reigning monarch, and have thus become Prime Minister.
This is usually done by saying words to the effect of:. Throughout the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister outranks all other dignitaries except members of the Royal Family, the Lord Chancellor , and senior ecclesiastical figures.
Membership of the Council is retained for life. It is a constitutional convention that only a Privy Counsellor can be appointed Prime Minister.
Most potential candidates have already attained this status. The issue was resolved by appointing him to the Council immediately prior to his appointment as Prime Minister.
According to the now defunct Department for Constitutional Affairs , the Prime Minister is made a Privy Counsellor as a result of taking office and should be addressed by the official title prefixed by "The Right Honourable" and not by a personal name.
As "Prime Minister" is a position, not a title, the incumbent should be referred to as "the Prime Minister". The title "Prime Minister" e.
Chequers , a country house in Buckinghamshire, gifted to the government in , may be used as a country retreat for the Prime Minister. John Major age 75 — Tony Blair age 65 — Gordon Brown age 67 — David Cameron age 52 — Upon retirement, it is customary for the Sovereign to grant a Prime Minister some honour or dignity.
The practice of creating a retired male Prime Minister a Knight of the Garter KG has been fairly prevalent since the mid—nineteenth century.
Upon the retirement of a Prime Minister who is Scottish, it is likely that the primarily Scottish honour of Knight of the Thistle KT will be used instead of the Order of the Garter, which is generally regarded as an English honour.
Historically it has also been common to grant prime ministers a peerage upon retirement from the Commons, elevating the individual to the Lords.
Formerly, the peerage bestowed was usually an earldom. From the s onward, life peerages were preferred, although in Harold Macmillan was created Earl of Stockton.
Edward Heath did not accept a peerage of any kind and nor have any of the prime ministers to retire since ; although Heath and Major were later appointed as Knights of the Garter.
Prime Minister Theresa May. Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond. Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt. Home Secretary Sajid Javid.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Joint Ministerial Committee Legislative consent motions Scotland. Constitution of the United Kingdom.
Westminster system and Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Living prime ministers of the United Kingdom. They include the sole authority to dismiss a Prime Minister and government of the day in extremely rare and exceptional circumstances, and other essential powers such as withholding Royal Assent , and summoning and proroguing Parliament to preserve the stability of the nation.
These reserve powers can be exercised without the consent of Parliament. Reserve powers, in practice, are the court of absolute last resort in resolving situations that fundamentally threaten the security and stability of the nation as a whole and are almost never used.
Every list of Prime Ministers may omit certain politicians. For instance, unsuccessful attempts to form ministries — such as the two-day government formed by the Earl of Bath in , often dismissed as the " Silly Little Ministry " — may be included in a list or omitted, depending on the criteria selected.
This principle states that the decisions made by any one Cabinet member become the responsibility of the entire Cabinet. Lord Home was the last Prime Minister who was a hereditary peer, but, within days of attaining office, he disclaimed his peerage, abiding by the convention that the Prime Minister should sit in the House of Commons.
A junior member of his Conservative Party who had already been selected as candidate in a by-election in a staunch Conservative seat stood aside, allowing Home to contest and win the by-election, and thus procure a seat in the lower House.
Gladstone replied, "As [Disraeli] lived, so he died—all display, without reality or genuineness. As of 11 June the Lords had members excluding 49 who were on leave of absence or otherwise disqualified from sitting , compared to in the Commons.
Of these, two — Bonar Law and Ramsay MacDonald — died while still sitting in the Commons, not yet having retired; another, the Earl of Aberdeen , was appointed to both the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Thistle; yet another, Arthur Balfour , was appointed to the Order of the Garter, but represented an English constituency and may not have considered himself entirely Scottish; and of the remaining three, the Earl of Rosebery became a KG, Alec Douglas-Home became a KT, and Gordon Brown remained in the House of Commons as a backbencher until United Nations Protocol and Liaison Office.
Retrieved 28 December The Cabinet Manual 1st ed. Retrieved 24 July Prime Ministers hold office unless and until they resign.
If the Prime Minister resigns on behalf of the Government, the Sovereign will invite the person who appears most likely to be able to command the confidence of the House to serve as Prime Minister and to form a government.
Retrieved 4 April Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 19 May Walter Bagehot, an authority on 19th-century British government, said this unity is "the efficient secret" of its constitution.
No doubt, by the traditional theory, as it exists in all the books, the goodness of our constitution consists in the entire separation of the legislative and executive authorities, but in truth its merit consists in their singular approximation.
The connecting link is the Cabinet A Cabinet is a combing committee—a hyphen which joins a buckle which fastens the legislative part of the State to the executive part of the State.
In its origin it belongs to the one, in its functions it belongs to the other. King makes the point that much of the British constitution is in fact written and that no constitution is written down in its entirety.
The distinctive feature of the British constitution, he says, is that it is not codified. He has no statutory duties as Prime Minister, his name occurs in no Acts of Parliament, and though holding the most important place in the constitutional hierarchy, he has no place which is recognized by the laws of his country.
Parliament of the United Kingdom. After the Restoration in , for example, Lord Clarendon was encouraged to assume the title of "First Minister" in the new government rather than accept a specific office.
According to the Duke of Ormonde, however, "He Clarendon could not consent to enjoy a pension out of the Exchequer under no other title or pretense but being First Minister.
We know it not before: If some of the Privy-Council men be trusted, and some not, to whom is a gentleman to apply? Must he ask, "Who is a Cabinet-Counsellor?
I am sure, these distinctions of some being more trusted than others have given great dissatisfaction. In Eccleshall, Robert; Walker, Graham.
Biographical Dictionary of British Prime Ministers. Retrieved 3 May Nowhere is there a man who has so much power with so little to show for it in the way of formal title or prerogative.
Talking Politics — Conventions of the constitution". Retrieved 2 November Sandys came yesterday to give us warning; Lord Wilmington has lent it to them.
Sir Robert might have had it for his own at first: He goes into a small house of his own in Arlington Street, opposite to where we formerly lived".
Cunningham, , I, p. British History Online, From: Whitehall II , pp. Retrieved 30 January Marriott enumerates five characteristics of modern Cabinet Government: In Blake, Robert B.
Contemporaries seemed to sense from the beginning that history was being made. After dinner the private secretary to the Prime Minister and myself being alone, I ascertained that although Lord Grey was gone to Brighton ostensibly to prick for Sheriffs for the year, his great object was to put his plan of reform before the King, previous A ticklish operation, this!
However, there is the plan all cut and dry, and the Cabinet unanimous upon it Grey is determined to fight it out to a dissolution of Parliament, if his plan is beat in the Commons.
My eye, what a crisis! Lord Rosebery, later a Prime Minister himself, said of Peel: It is more than doubtful, indeed, if it be possible in this generation, when the burdens of Empire and of office have so incalculably grown, for any Prime Minister to discharge the duties of his high office with the same thoroughness or in the same spirit as Peel.
Peel kept a strict supervision over every department: Disraeli and Victoria thought the tactic was unconstitutional. Breakdown of Lords by party strength and type of peerage".
Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 25 May State of the parties". Archived from the original on 11 May The Liberal majority was actually much larger in practice because on most issues they could rely on the votes of 51 Labour and Lib-Lab representatives and 83 Irish Nationalists.
Their majority was so large and unprecedented — they had more seats than all other parties combined — that one Conservative called it a "hideous abnormality".
The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies. Advanced Government and Politics.
The Rise of the British Presidency. Tony Blair and the Politics of Public Leadership. British Government in Crisis.
Retrieved 23 April The Last Prime Minister: Comparative Politics and Government. Retrieved 25 April Full Downing Street statement". Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 17 September Bagehot, Walter .
Routledge and Kegan Paul. List of English chief ministers. Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. First Lord of the Treasury.
MP for Cambridge University. MP for the City of London. Leader of the House of Lords Sec. MP for Manchester East. MP for Stirling Burghs.
MP for East Fife. MP for Caernarvon Boroughs. MP for Glasgow Central. MP for Birmingham Edgbaston. First Lord of the Treasury Minister of Defence — MP for Cardiff South East.
Biography portal British politics portal Politics portal Lists portal. Premiership of Theresa May. Burt, Llewellyn Charles A Synoptical History of England 2nd ed.
Lockwood — via the Internet Archive. Butler, David ; Butler, Gareth British Political Facts 10th ed. The Treasury in Public Policy-Making.
University of California Press published Cook, Chris; Stevenson, John Rivington — via the Internet Archive. The British Magazine and Review.
Eccleshall, Robert; Walker, Graham, eds. Biographical Dictionary of British Prime Ministers 2nd ed. Facts About the British Prime Ministers. The Forging of the Modern State: Early Industrial Britain, — 3rd ed.
Britain before the Reform Act: Politics and Society — 2nd ed. In Stephen, Leslie ; Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography.
The Office and Its Holders Since Jones, Clyve; Jones, David L. Peers, Politics and Power: House of Lords, — Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.
Kebbel, Thomas Edward Essays Upon History and Politics. Chapman and Hall — via the Internet Archive. Lee, Simon; Beech, Matt, eds.
Coalition Politics in an Age of Austerity. Walpole to the Younger Pitt. Archibald Constable and Co — via the Internet Archive.
An Introductory Study 2nd ed. McMullen Rigg, James Mahon, Viscount ; Cardwell, Edward , eds. Mosley, Charles , ed.
The Cambridge Modern History. Handbook of British Chronology 3rd ed. Orationes et epistolae Cantabrigienses — Robert Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury.
Schumann, Matt; Schweizer, Karl W. The Seven Years War: The End of British Party Politics? Yet the Scottish party was much more influential at Westminster: Seldon, Anthony , ed.
Shaw, William Arthur The Knights of England. Sherratt and Hughes — via the Internet Archive. Tegg — via the Internet Archive.
Tout, Thomas Frederick An Advanced History of Great Britain. Compendium of British Office Holders. Studies in Modern History. Sir Winston Churchill resigns".
On This Day — Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 2 September Balfour, Arthur 29 March Archived from the original on 2 September Lord Palmerston, then the Leader of this House.
Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 30 August